Items filtered by date: April 2015

Hardships, Discrimination, and Hate Crimes Experienced By Interracial Couples in California
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Hardships, Discrimination, and Hate Crimes Experienced By Interracial Couples in California
Interracial marriage is the phrase that is used to refer to a marriage between two persons from different ethnic groups or from different races. A related phrase to interracial marriage is intercultural marriage that refers to a marriage relationship between two persons of different cultural backgrounds. As such, from a close look, intercultural marriage can be used to refer to interracial marriages. A good example of a intercultural marriage is a marriage between an Indian person and whose culture lays emphasis on the importance of family over the importance of individual benefits and a white person for instance in United States whose culture lays emphasis on individual autonomy. Over the past few decades, relationships between persons of different cultural and ethnic groups have become increasingly common within States such California in which, there have been a substantial increase in number of persons engaging in intercultural or interracial marriages.
Historically, the concept of separation of races or purity had been promoted in all states of America – inclusive of California. Laws had been enacted to keep all the races separate. As such, marriages between the different races were prohibited in United States – and especially in individuals who by high merit of marriage would not uphold the limpidness of racial-ethnic groups. According to Davis (1991), the laws were worded in such a way marriages relationships between African Americans and Caucasians was illegal. However, by 1967, the Supreme Court declared all the laws that that prohibited interracial marriages unconstitutional. Despite this declaration or authorization/legalization of interracial marriage relationships by the Supreme Court of United state the number of interracial marriages across the various states still remained low due to the stigma that had been associated with interracial marriage and relationships.
As from 1980s, there has been a notable increase of interracial marriages and especially since the start of 21st century. The increase in interracial marriages in United States had been attributed to the changes in legal status concerning interracial marriages and the changing perceptions of Americans concerning individuals engaging in interracial relationships and marriages. Equally, the increase in interracial marriages in most states can be attributed to the declined societal prejudice towards interracial marriages and the decrease in shame experienced by interracial couples and their families. In addition, the changes in census forms have encouraged Americans to identify with all races comprising the population of America (Davis, 1991),
In United States and in California in particular, the growth or increase of interracial marriages and relationships is not uniform across individuals of the various races comprising the population. This simply implies that interracial marriages have been noted to increase in some ethnic and racial groups but not in others. For instance, there has been a notable increase of interracial marriages among the Asian Americans and the Native Americans. However, the number of interracial marriages among peoples of black race and other races has remained low. In most case, it has been noted that more black males do engage in interracial marriages than their counterpart female counterparts. The low rate of interracial marriage amongst the black race can be attributed to the continued disapproval of white-black intermixing. As such, interracial marriages with blacks still receive objection and negative feedbacks from the family member of the other couple and especially the white couple family members (Davis, 1991),
Interracial couples face numerous challenges or hardships. The hardships, discrimination, and hate crimes experienced by interracial couples are similar in almost all the states in America. The major hardships experienced by interracial couples are as a result of family oppositions. As such, there is a possibility of these couples having high levels of conflict. The likely explanation for the high conflict in interracial couples is that such couples may lack the necessary social support from their family members. Equally, the high conflict level in interracial couples can be attributed to cultural differences. For the purpose of this paper, I will address hardships, discrimination, and hate crimes experienced by interracial couples due to lack of social support from family members and cultural differences.
Family oppositions to interracial marriages from a wider perspective can be argued as the major problem facing interracial couples in the state of California. Family and colleagues affect the success of any marriage relationship through failing to provide the much needed social support. For a marriage to be successful, couples need to receive complementing statements from their family members. For instance, complementing statement such as they are a perfect match for each other and that they have the ability of going through any difficulty together and be successful partners and subsequently parents. However, in most interracial marriages the family member are against the marriage and hence such complementing statement may not be available. As such, the family members and to some extend the friends are of negative impact to interracial couples. For instance, the family members and friends have been known to facilitate dissatisfaction between the two partners. In fact, Bryant and Conger (1999) argued that outside support is a crucial component of a healthy and long lasting marital success. However, most interracial couples don’t receive outside support from their family members. Conversely, it can be argued that one of the hardships experienced by interracial couples is unsupportive family members. The opposition from the family members then damages the couple relationship and hence increasing the likelihood of divorce.
The lack of developing protocols and social norms translates to a lack of support for interracial couples. The disapproval from family members makes the interracial couples to feel insecure and unwelcome and hence damaging their relationship. In fact, Bryant and Conger (1999) in their work argued that a lack of family and community support was associated to the high divorce rate among interracial couple. In a study conducted that interviewed black-white couples, it was found that most white partner’s family member opposed the marriage. The concerns highlighted by the white partner’s family members for the marriage disapproval grounds on societal issue. For instance, such societal concerns expressed by the white family includes safety concerns, issues to do with the probable problems the couple’s children will face, and concerns about the financial problems the white partner will face for entering in such a relationship. Generally, the assumption here is that the blacks are inferior to the whites and as well they are not financially good (Rosenblatt, Karis and Powell, 1995).
Rosenblatt, Karis and Powell (1995) outlined that some studies conducted in California indicated that the black families had no issues with interracial marriages and accepted or supported it. Generally, there is less opposition to interracial marriage from the black families. Rosenblatt, Karis and Powell (1995) continue to outline that mothers are of great influence and their opinion in respect to the couple’s relationship matters most. Equally, the studies indicated that fathers from the white family side played a significant role in opposing the marriage relationship. As such, fathers were found to strongly oppose interracial marriages than mothers. The studies also indicated that the opinion of the white family mattered most. As such, there were few black families member who opposed the marriage relationship. Studies have also indicated that black families have minimal or less stringent rules as to who should count as a family member. This makes it easy to accept someone from a different race and incorporate him or her as a family member.
Generally, the complications experienced by interracial couple in California are because of the depressing societal altitudes concerning interracial relationships. For instance, Caucasian-black unions are least to occur basing on the longstanding negative beliefs concerning these relationships and marriages. Generally, the researchers conducted concerning why such marriage relationships are rare indicate that Caucasians’ families have a tendency of disapproving marriage relationships between them and blacks. However, the black have a tendency of approving their marriage relationships with the Caucasians. As such, the Caucasians have a feeling that the blacks are inferior and that they should not intermix by allowing their family members to intermarry with the blacks. Equally, another study indicated that those couples among the Caucasians who marry a black do so because of their rebelliousness and self-hate. This perception questions whether or not interracial couples are reciprocate love basing on the rejection received from the family members. Equally, arguing from the point that the dominant culture has the tendency of disdaining Caucasian-black unions, it is equally hard to imagine that such married partners are capable of maintaining a healthy marital relationship (Bryant and Conger, 1999).
Asian Americans interracial relationships have also proved to be rocky. In California, Asian Americans have the highest interracial relationship than any other ethnic or racial group. It is important to note that despite this increase in interracial marriages amongst the Asian Americans and other races comprising the population of America, initially, interracial marriages between the Caucasians and the Asian Americans was prohibited in United State. For instance, in the year 1910, the California State comprehensively extended the 1850 Marriage Regulation Act to include Mongolians - that is the Koreans, Japanese, and Chinese. Subsequently in 1933, the California state further extended the same marriage regulation to marriage relationships or unions with the Malays – that is marriage relationship with the Filipinos. However, in 1948 in a case (Perez v. Sharp 1948) the discriminating Marriage Regulation was overturned by the judicial system of California. Equally, such, anti-miscegenation laws were later overturned by the U.S Supreme Court in 1967 in their ruling in (Loving V. Virginia). Despite the fact that the rulings of these two cases legalized interracial marriages, the unconstructive societal viewpoints on interracial relationships and especially in respect to Caucasian black relationship has not really improved the situation (Bok-Lim Kim, 1998).
According to Bok-Lim Kim (1998), there has been a notable increase of interracial marriages between the United States military men and Asian women – especially, among Vietnams, Japanese, Philippines, and South Koreans. According to Bok-Lim Kim (1998), the increase of these interracial marriages among the military men can be attributed to the low socioeconomic standing of these women living within proximity to the military bases. Equally, the increase of theses interracial marriages between the military men and the Asian women is attributed to the diminished self esteem among these women as a result of their low social economic status. Bok-Lim Kim (1998) continues to outline that these interracial couples were found to display unconcerned optimism and courage despite the hardships they faced as a result of their cultural and language differences and as well the lack of social support from their communities and families. Additionally, Bok-Lim Kim (1998) continued to highlight that the Asian women in question continued to carry the cultural norms burden, which in most cases attracts a severe penalty for opting to marry outside their race and ethnic group. It is important to note that despite the fact there has been a notable improvement in Asian out marriages acceptance over the decades by their families and communities, the major hindrances or problems to the success of these marriage relationships is because of their differing cultural background.
Interracial marriages and relationships still remain divisive for a number of additional reasons. For instance, a number of Asian Americans remain upset because of the ever increasing number of interracial marriage relationships or unions. This is because they tend and hold that interracial marriage unions significantly reduce the number or pool for that case of eligible women and men who would have otherwise engaged in same culture marriage relationships or unions for that case. In fact, a number of Asian Americans have expressed fear that because of the increased number of out marriages within the last few decades there could be facing out of specific Asian groups in near future. Equally, a portion of Asian Americans are of the view point that because of the high number of Asian women involved in out marrying, a number of Asian American men may find themselves failing to marry because of the diminishing number of Asian American women (Fujino, 1997). As such, interracial marriage relationships have continued to face family rejection from Asian Americans families.
The African Americans are expressing a similar fear to the Asian American within the state of California. This is because as outlined by Fujino (1997) in his work by arguing that as African Americans women and men achieve or further their levels of education they are moving to higher economic levels. As such, just a few members of the African American population are left available for marriage within their race and ethnic group. The implication here is that this wills finally result to frustration to that portion African American desiring to marry within their ethnic and race group. As such, the advancement in academic or education level and the subsequent increase in earning level will increase the rate of interracial marriage relationships or unions. This equally brings us to conclusion interracial marriage relationships or unions are likely to face family objection within the Africa American family side.
Apart from family objection another issue with interracial couples within California is conflict due to differing cultural background and as well socioeconomics issues. Less commonality between interracial partners is presumed to destabilize interracial relationships because it makes it difficult to communicate clearly and to agree on most life issues – negotiating and arriving to a satisfactory agreement becomes a problem for interracial partners. Issues of disagreement result to marital conflicts such as physical violence and behavioral complications such as infidelity, jealousy, irritating habits and foolish spending habits.
From a general perspective, most of the hardships and other problems experienced in interracial relationships or unions are direct or unique results of interracial experience. Interracial marriages and relationships still remain divisive for a number of additional reasons. For instance, a number of Asian Americans remain upset because of the ever increasing number of interracial marriage relationships or unions. This is because they tend and hold that interracial marriage unions significantly reduce the number or pool for that case of eligible women and men who would have otherwise engaged in same culture marriage relationships or unions for that case. In fact, a number of Asian Americans have expressed fear that because of the increased number of out marriages within the last few decades there could be facing out of specific Asian groups in near future. Equally, a portion of Asian Americans are of the view point that because of the high number of Asian women involved in out marrying, a number of Asian American men may find themselves failing to marry because of the diminishing number of Asian American women (Fujino, 1997). As such, interracial marriage relationships have continued to face family rejection from Asian Americans families.
The African Americans are expressing a similar fear to the Asian American within the state of California. This is because as outlined by Fujino (1997) in his work by arguing that as African Americans women and men achieve or further their levels of education they are moving to higher economic levels. As such, just a few members of the African American population are left available for marriage within their race and ethnic group. The implication here is that this wills finally result to frustration to that portion African American desiring to marry within their ethnic and race group. As such, the advancement in academic or education level and the subsequent increase in earning level will increase the rate of interracial marriage relationships or unions. This equally brings us to conclusion interracial marriage relationships or unions are likely to face family objection within the Africa American family side.
Apart from family objection another issue with interracial couples within California is conflict due to differing cultural background and as well socioeconomics issues. Less commonality between interracial partners is presumed to destabilize interracial relationships because it makes it difficult to communicate clearly and to agree on most life issues – negotiating and arriving to a satisfactory agreement becomes a problem for interracial partners. Issues of disagreement result to marital conflicts such as physical violence and behavioral complications such as infidelity, jealousy, irritating habits and foolish spending habits.


References
Bryant, C.M., & Conger, R.D. (1999). Marital Success and Domains of Social Support in Long- Term Relationship: Does the Influence of Network Members ever End? Journal of Marriage and the family, 61, 437-450.
Davis, F. J. (1991). Who is Black? One Nation's Definition. University Park: Pennsylvania state university press.
Fujino, D. C. (1997). "The Rates, Patterns and Reasons For Forming Heterosexual Interracial Dating Relationships Among Asian Americans." Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 14:809–28.
Kim, K. (1998). "Marriages of Asian Women and American Military Men: The Impact of Gender and Culture." In Re-visioning Family Therapy: Race, Culture, and Gender in Clinical Practice, ed. m. mcgoldrick. New York: Guilford press.
Rosenblatt, P.C., Karis, T.A., & Powell, R.D. (1995). Multiracial Couples: Black and White Voices. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

 

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The Presentation of Self" To Contemporary Society
In his book ‘The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life,’ Erving Goffman explores individuals’ interpersonal interaction in relation to how they perform so as to depict or portray a desirable self image. In his analysis, Goffman uses the imagery of theatre to analyze the interaction of human beings within the society they exist. Generally, Goffman’s analysis grounds on the relationship between life and performance (acting). Arguably, that is why he uses the theatre performance symbolically to signify real life human interaction within the society. As such, he uses theatre to exemplify the contrast that exist between front stage and back stage human behaviors. In the process of interaction, those in front stage or participants are referred as actors. While in front stage, the actor is always aware that s/he is being observed by the audience. As such, this makes the actor to perform observing some social conventions and in line with certain rules (Goffman, 1990)
The actor observes all these in order to create or project a specific self persona or image to his or her audience. Failure to comply with the aforementioned observations or guideline implies to losing face according to Goffman analysis. Of great importance to note here is that the actor’s behavior is always different in a private set up – back stage setting for that case where no performance is required. As such, according to Goffman’s analysis, the performance is the self presentation. This is because, the performance subject individuals to form or develop new personalities of oneself with the perception that one has turned into an enhanced person. However, the emergence and advancement of technology has limited the physical social interaction between or among individuals in the society. This paper addresses the presentation of self (self presentation) within the contemporary society (Goffman, 1990).
Goffman outlines that while performing (Self presentation) individuals possess the give and the give off expressions. The latter expressions results to impressions received by the audience that the actor never intended the audience to receive, while the former are impressions that the actor intended the audience to receive or rather, which s/he intended to produce or communicate. Apart from the impressions that individual give and give off while performing (self presentation), Goffman in his analysis also considered other form of imageries or metaphors for that case in respect to self presentation. One such imagery is the use of mask, which signifies a deception of face to face interaction. Through masking the individual performing (self presentation) is able to present and as well marginalize some aspects of one self. However, of great importance to note is that the individual in question does not become a different person by the virtue of masking – the worn mask and the disguised person are features of the same person (Goffman, 1990).
During his time, Goffman highlighted that telephone conversation was a way of marginalizing the way people interact socially and termed as ‘a departure from the norm.’ From Goffman point of view, technology would definitely disrupt the order of social interaction – face to face interaction. In fact, when referring to telephone conversation and terming it a marginalized way of social interaction, Goffman may have been implying that technology-mediated interaction is insufficient due to the absence of physical signals that are there in physical interaction. However, social interaction has evolved over decades with the advancement of modern technologies to such a point that physical interaction has been significantly limited (Goffman, 1990).
For instance, the emergence and advancement of computer-mediated communication has lead to the global acceptance of non-physical online social interaction. The global acceptance of online non-physical social interaction has resulted to questioning the applicability of Goffman’s interaction order within the context of online social interaction. According to Arundale (2010), Goffman’s interaction order is decades and decades old and hence outdated. In fact, according to Arundale (2010), Goffman’s interaction order should be amended to integrate technology and research progress. On the other hand, Miller (n.d) argued that electronic interaction was just but an ordinary extension or addition to what Goffman had already posited.
Computer mediated communication as received a global recognition over the past years. For instance, it possible for people to interact socially through exchanging ideas and feelings freely and with ease through the various social networks such as through Facebook, Skype, twitter, Whatsapp, and among other social network site. Of great importance to note is that through some of the available social networks people can share photos and video links and hence bringing in the presence of physical signals or cues as in conventional physical social interaction. Equally, technology advancement has resulted to the use of blogs as a tool of social communication. In fact, blogging has advanced to include features such as videos, photos, personal biography, bloggers social network profile links, friend lists, and as well to include web 2.0. The inclusion of all of these features plus the customizable backgrounds has enabled bloggers to offer a broad variety of identity pointers. Additionally, all these additional features allow bloggers introduce aspects of communication richness in their communication.
Despite the global recognition of online non physical social interaction, Jenkins (2010) argues that face to face social interaction still remains the real thing. However, Jenkins (2010) continues to acknowledge the progress of computer mediated communication and indicates that computer mediated communications presents an elaborate example of impression management. Equally, Jenkins continues to argue that the gap that existed between digital interaction and face to face social interaction has with time reduced owing to the communication richness that has been introduced in the modern computer mediated communication as a result of technology advancement.
As such, according to Jenkins (2010) analysis, Goffman’s interaction order theories are still applicable in the modern computer mediated communication. In fact, from Jenkins (2010) point of view, Goffman’s interaction order theories remain versatile and are of timelessness nature. Arguably, the physical interactions or for that case the offline interaction are the back stage or bases upon which online interaction occurs. As such, the aspects of giving off and giving that signify the conventional physical interaction can be incorporated to the modern computer mediated communication through the various means of adding communication richness to make it appear real. As such, the remaining part of this paper will describe the applicability of interaction order as outlined by Goffman in his work in respect to self presentation in the modern online world.
It has been aforementioned in this paper that online environment or settings for that case present individuals with a rare opportunity to present and to perform different personalities. The geographical distance between the audience and the performer (self presentation actor or person) makes it simple to cover up offline self aspects and adorn online aspects. From Goffman’s description or analysis for that case, this can be considered as a manifestation of splitting one’s self character during the interaction process. Note that in this case the self is divided in to the two – new and old one self. Jenkins (2010) argues that the new identities of oneself re not developed or created online, but the division of oneself can be found as well in our day to day face to face interactions. For that purpose, the online one-self can be argued as a component of a broader identity – linking the one-self in some other offline contexts. In contrast, Arundale (2010) stipulates that the creation of new one-self is achieved online.
Arundale (2010) outlines that irrespective of how one-self is conceptualized in respect to self presentation, online identity facilitate or plays a major role in persona adoption. In fact, according to some researches, the term non virtual should be used to replace real world. The rationale behind this replacement of the term real world with the term virtual world is because “… Virtual identities created and maintained by users’ non-virtual identities, may be just as real to users as their non-virtual identities”. As such, individuals would not assume their online self identities as being far apart from reality. Baker (2009), in his work, coined an alternative point of view through his concept of blended identity. In this the offline oneself notifies the creation or the development of the new self. The online self subsequently re-notifies the offline oneself for additional interaction with those the person in question initially met online.
The aforementioned scenario can best be understood and explained in respect to Goffman’s face. Goffman explains that the individual in self presentation is “expected to keep face by maintaining the initial impression that they have made on an audience and live up to it” (Goffman, 1990 p.35). The face construction according to Goffman’s description can be likened to the action of putting on a mask. From the point of view of blended identity in respect to Goffman’s framework, it can be deduced that the self refers to the mere action of masking oneself. As such, the mask one chooses to literally put on in a given particular situation. The individual (actor) puts on or dons the mask whenever he or she interacts socially with other individuals online. For that case, the actor leaves the mask on for the intentions of face in upcoming physical interactions. Of importance to note is that the audience is always unaware that a unlike self lies underneath for utilization in a dissimilar situation.
In online environment or setting, the avatar represents a form of mask. As such, the appearance of avatar in an online environment exhibits the interests or role of the user. The customization of avatars in online environment or settings has proved to be of significant importance in second life (SL) contexts than in other forms of virtual worlds. This is an indication that more value is placed in self presentation in second life. As such, users will have a preference for better looking avatars, that are fitter and those that are outstanding than they are in actual or real life. Note that this amounts to identity exploration and for that case a one sided edition or form of it.
In this respect, the online environment or setting for that case can be assumed as a stage in which the backstage is the offline life. The particular actors in this stage invest in their ‘costume’ with the wish of provoking the preferred response from other second life (SL) inhabitants. As such, the avatars are subsequently of focus transformed social interaction. This observable fact implies that with the avatars advert, the users will definitely minimize and emphasis definite elements of self, such as behavior or appearance. This is possible in computer median communication (CMC) because the users have now become creators and editors in the modern global society. This implies that the users are in opposition to design and create their self representations. As such, they are in a position to choose what to depict within the foreground and what to hind within the background.
The fact that the blogger is in a position to maintain several blogs implies that he or she can create diverse persona to identify with each blog. As such, the self has been successfully broken down with each receiving a different set of information. Of great importance to note in these modern computer median communication (CMC) is that some blogs are anonymous and the blogger disseminates inappropriate or inapt subject matter away from the primary blog through a second blog. Note that in this case we have a primary online self, but depending on the needs a second personae maybe utilized. In order to avoid the output of the second personae compromising either the primary online self or the offline self and thus conveying loss of ‘face’ it is important to mask the identity. As such, the second life (SL) correspondent of the next blog is the substitute avatar, or ‘alt’ for that case. Note that these are usually the added avatars and are usually used for different functions to the primary avatar.
Equally, the alternative avatars can be self-sufficient of the primary avatar in that they may be having a dissimilar appearance and even different friends. However, it is important to note that the users behind them remain the same. Owing to the fact that the alts or the alternatives are options for second life (SL) users, they may not have a primary avatar. As such, their different elements identity may be distributed among the various avatars of similar significance. However, this is quite unlikely basing on the fact that 98% of second life (SL) users were found to at least being in a position of identifying one specific avatar as their core representation. Despite the fact that Goffman’s interaction order work involved our day to day social interaction, it can still be argued that the use of alts as previously outlined in this paper is a materialization of Goffman’s work – that in the modern society individuals assume several roles and as well as several identities in their day to day life (Goffman, 1990).
The information collected from second life (SL) inhabitants in respect to identity interaction revealed four major finding: -
 Users later stop role playing and hence consequently becoming themselves
 Irrespective of the intentions, individuals behave somewhat in a different way when interacting online
 A number of individuals will engage in second life (SL) as themselves
 While in online interaction individuals cover up some of their personality attributes while at the same emphasizing others
In respect to Goffman’s description, actors or performers initiate the use of props but eventually marginalize them; though, the actor or the performer stills continues performing on stage – however, only the unconscious performance is noted; in so doing, the user stills brings an offline self that performs while interacting with the online environment. Note that aspect of covering up personality attributes of oneself in online interaction is an example of impression management in the conventional physical face to face interaction as described in Goffman’s analysis or description in his interaction order work. In this case of covering up or concealing the personality attributes the actor or the performer is trying to control those elements or aspects of oneself that the audiences perceive. From this analysis it is clear that there is a notable link or connection between the online interaction behavior and Goffman’s interaction order theories (Baker, 2009).
Another area that can be considered in respect to self presentation in the online world is the ‘masking and unmasking’ in identity tourism. Identity tourism refers to the situation in which online environment user, for instance in second life (SL) or in blogging uses his or her anonymity potential to adapt a different race or gender. By doing so, the user talks and behaves in a stereotypical manner. The users of second life (SL) have the tendency of conforming to this norm in the virtual world. Mostly, in respect to identity tourism, second life (SL) users will opt for avatars representing ethnic diversity. However, other online environment users will opt for avatars depicting western and American beauty culture. Generally, users within the main three virtual worlds (inclusive of second life) focus on western beauty concept. As such, older, overweight, and underweight users will always aim at creating younger, fashionable, and leaner versions of themselves (self presentation). Equally, it is common for blacks to use white avatars with the hope or wish that they will be accepted (Arundale, 2010).
In fact, the documented literatures in respect to this issue reveal that the aspect or the idea of being white in the game comes along with certain social advantages. According to Goffman’s analysis, it can be argued that a person attempting or trying to match such a convention in second life (SL) becomes a cynical performer and the desire to win a specific self presentation from his or her audiences prevents him or her from being sincere.
In the modern world, bloggers writing about political issues have to exercise some form of self-censorship in order to avoid arrest and government filtering. This to them implies avoiding analyzing political sensitive topics or to employ some indirect tactics and deliver their intended message – for instance, commenting on the specific situation rather than pointing out their personal opinion, using symbolism and analogy or though writing anonymous content. From Goffman’s perspective, the political bloggers a present self image ‘give’ by editing their message to avoid government confrontation but as well use the aforementioned tactics with the hope that their audience will ‘give off’ and understanding their intended message (Arundale, 2010).
Note that the aspect of self-censoring indicates that the political bloggers are forced to self present a politically acceptable personality. However, they try to depict their true self persona (self presentation) through employing the aforementioned tactics. As such, it can be concluded that the presentation of self is a reflection of a growing trend that says something about our evolution as a society.


References
Arundale, R. (2010).Face as emergent in interpersonal communication: an alternative to Goffman. In: Bargiela chiappini F. and Haugh M (eds.) Face, communication and social interaction. London: Equinox Publishing.
Baker, A. J. (2009). Mick or Keith: blended identity of online rock fans. Identity in the Information Society; 2: 7-21.
Goffman, E. (1990). The presentation of self in everyday life. London: Penguin.
Jenkins, R. (2010). The 21st century interaction order. London: Routledge.
Miller, H. (n.d).The presentation of self in electronic life: Goffman on the Internet', Proceedings of the embodied knowledge and virtual space conference, retrieved from http://www.dourish.com/classes/ics234cw04/miller2.pdf

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Thursday, 30 April 2015 04:07

Get Hard 2


“Get Hard” is a 2015 American comedy film that stars Will Ferrell, Alison Brie, Kevin Hart, Craig T. Nelson, and Edwina Findley . Although the movie opened in March to negative reviews, the movie was a financial success in its own terms grossing more than $91 million from a $40 million budget. The film was written by Ian Roberts, Jay Martel, and Etan Cohen. Cohen happens to be the film’s director in his debut as a director. This comedy film’s main theme is that of power struggles that exist in our societies mainly portrayed in the form of racism, class, and gender.
In the opening scene, we find James King (Will Ferrell) the main protagonist crying frantically before taking us back to one month earlier. Here we find that King was a white successful hedge and stocks manager engaged to be married to Alissa (Alison Brie), a gorgeous gold-digger. On the other and we find Kings black car washer Darnell Lewis (Kevin Hart) who is married to Rita (Edwina Findley) who are struggling to put Makayla, their daughter into a better school away from their current crime-laden neighborhood.
In the first scene where King and Lewis meet we realize the effect of racism as King a rich white meets Lewis a black in the parking lot. King is afraid because he thinks Lewis wants to rob him. In the ensuing conversation, we realize that class also matters as King brags about how rich he is and removes a wad of notes but gives Lewis only two singles as a tip but after asking him to look for his success. Thus, in the early stages of the movie, we realize how power struggles of race and class exist in our societies. Though the films intention is to entertain the viewer, it does this in a way that people do not understand the themes presented because the viewer associates events as normal occurrences but does understand that the film acts as a mirror of our selves. Each one of the actors wants to portray their strength in their own personal ways.
On the second scene we find Alissa, who happens to be the daughter of King’s Boss, Martin (Craig T. Nelson), throwing an expensive party for her boyfriend King. During this party, Alissa gives an electric guitar to King as a gift and hires Jon Mayer to perform at the party. Unfortunately, the police interrupt the party, by arresting King for embezzlement and fraud.
The characters and actions of the actors play an important role in helping us to understand the key power struggle concepts in the film. For instance, we see that after King is arrested his lawyer asks him to enter a guilty plea, which he refuses. The judge later finds him guilty gives King a ten-year sentence but gives King 30-day reprieve before going to jail in order to clean up his accounts. When he tries to escape with Alissa to another country Alissa refuses telling him, them the engagement is off. King is later arrested and asks Alissa and her father for help. Realizing that no help is forthcoming, King decides to ask Lewis for help on how to survive in prison because King assumes that Lewis must have been to prison just because he is a black. Such stereotyping is one way through which we see differences in class and race as portrayed by the director.
Unfortunately, Lewis has never been to prison but because he urgently needs money to take his daughter to a better school he demands a $30,000 payment if he has to teach King how to survive in prison. This demand for money also depicts a scenario where the whites belong to a superior class than the blacks because they are richer. Before Lewis can start to pretend that he can toughen up King, he is smacked by Rita after calling her a bitch. This part clearly shows the gender struggles that exist between the races. Among the blacks, it appears that the power of money is not as important as physical strength; this is why Rita can afford to stay with Lewis, while Alissa cannot stay with King after it appears that he is losing his wealth, which is King’s source of power.
On the start of the training Lewis pepper-sprays King on arrival at his home and tries to make King to mimic his “mad dog face” but King’s best try is only a comical “sad dog face.” When this fails Lewis tries to make King to defend himself at the parking lot by creating scenarios that put King in danger and he has to defend himself but the only success they get is King being beaten up countless times. When King contacts his boss martin to tell him he is getting help, martin who is the actual culprit sends his lawyer and a hired gun to finish him off so that he does not rat him off because he thinks King has discovered the truth.
Lewis makes King learn how to perform oral sex because he will eventually end up as some inmates “bitch” while in prison. This makes the film more comical as King starts to train how to perform oral sex. This is another depiction of the problems that most blacks go through because they constantly go to prison and while in prison they have to go through some of these things.
A few days before King’s incarceration, Lewis asks his cousin Russell (T.I), who is the leader of a local black gang-the Crenshaw Kings to recruit King into the gang so that they can protect him in prison. In order to see whether King can act as a real racist, Lewis drives King to a local bar where the Allegiance of Whites gang is located. Unfortunately, King fails to act as a real racist and he is almost killed. This use of gangs for protection and the separation of gangs into black and whites is another portrayal of the power struggles of race, class and gender.
One thing that is clear in the movie is the fact that although the cast belongs to different cultural backgrounds they all seems to fit in well with people from other cultures as is portrayed in the movie by the director although racial and class boundaries are clearly visible.
Conclusion
Regardless of the power struggles that exist between the actors from different classes, races, and gender, it is clear that only the wisest of them win. Thus, we see that at the end Darnell and King unmask Martin, Kings Boss as the real mastermind of the fraud and embezzlement. Thus, in summary we can say that regardless of the fact that there exist power struggles between people from different cultural, racial, or class settings, it is a single person’s hard work and determination that can really determine who ends up victorious. In this case, Lewis and King become friends and King actually offers Lewis money to expand his business although at the beginning none liked the other

Published in Uncategorised
Thursday, 30 April 2015 04:06

Get Hard

“Get Hard”
“Get Hard” is a 2015 American comedy film that stars Will Ferrell, Alison Brie, Kevin Hart, Craig T. Nelson, and Edwina Findley among others. Although the movie opened in March to negative reviews, the movie was also a financial success in its own terms having already grossed more than $91 million from a $40 million budget. The film was written by Ian Roberts, Jay Martel, and Etan Cohen who also happens to be the film’s director in his debut as a director. This comedy film’s main theme is that of power struggles experienced by the actors mainly portrayed in the form of racism, class, and gender.
In the opening seen we find James King (Will Ferrell) the main protagonist crying frantically before taking us back to one month earlier. Here we find that King was a white successful hedge and stocks manager engaged to be married to Alissa (Alison Brie), a gorgeous gold-digger. On the other and we find Kings black car washer Darnell Lewis (Kevin Hart) who is married to Rita (Edwina Findley) who are struggling to put Makayla, their daughter into a better school away from their current crime-laden neighborhood.
In the first scene where King and Lewis meet we realize the effect of racism as King a rich white meets Lewis a black in the parking lot. King is afraid because he thinks Lewis wants to rob him. In the ensuing conversation we realize that class also matters as King brags about how rich he is and removes a wad of notes but gives Lewis only two singles as a tip but after asking him to look for his success. Thus, in the early stages of the movie we realize how power struggles based on race and class will be evident in the film.
From the early beginning, it is clear that although the film does entertain the audience, it brings out the power struggles that exist between people of different gender, race and social class. Each one of the actors wants to portray their strength in their own personal ways. On the second scene we find Alissa who happens to be the daughter of Kings Boss, Martin (Craig T. Nelson), throwing an expensive party for her boyfriend King. During this party, Alissa gives an electric guitar to King as a gift and also hires Jon Mayer to perform at the party. Unfortunately, the party is interrupted by the police who come to arrest King for embezzlement and fraud.
The different film chapters show how creative people have used film to give us experiences that we value. We will examine the principles and techniques that give this film its power to tell stories, express emotions, and trigger ideas while at the same time keeping us entertained. The characters and actions of the people in the film also play an important role in helping us to understand the key power struggle concepts in the film. For instance we see that after King is arrested his lawyer asks him to enter a guilty plea which he refuses. The judge later finds him guilty gives a ten year sentence and gives King 30 days to clean up his accounts. When he tries to escape with Alissa to another country Alissa refuses telling him them the engagement is off. King is later arrested and asks Alissa and her dad for help. Realizing that no help is forthcoming, King decides to ask Lewis for help on how to survive in prison because King assumes that Lewis must have been to prison just because he is a black. Such stereotyping is one way through which we see differences in class and race as portrayed by the director through the actors.
Unfortunately, Lewis has never been to prison but because e urgently needs money to take his daughter to a better school he demands a $30,000 payment if he has to teach King how to survive in prison. This demand for money also depicts a scenario where the whites belong to a superior class than the blacks. Before Lewis can start to pretend that he can toughen up King, he himself gets smacked by Rita after calling her a bitch. This part clearly shows the gender struggles that exist between the faces. Among the blacks it appears that the power of money is not as important as physical strength, this is why Rita can afford to stay with Lewis, while Alissa cannot stay with King after it appears that he is losing his wealth-source of power.
On the start of the training Lewis pepper-sprays King on arrival at his home and tries to make King to mimic his “mad dog face” but King’s best try is only a comical “sad dog face.” When this fails Lewis tries to make King to defend himself at the parking lot by creating scenarios that put King in danger and he has to defend himself but the only success they get is King being beaten up countless times. When King contacts his boss martin to tell him he is getting help, martin who is the actual culprit sends his lawyer and a hired gun to finish him off so that he does not rat him off because he thinks King has discovered the truth.
Lewis makes King learn how to perform oral sex because he will eventually end up as some inmates “bitch” while in prison. This makes the film more comical as King starts to train how to perform oral sex. This is another depiction of the problems that most blacks have to face because they are the ones constantly imprisoned.
A few days before his incarceration, Lewis asks his cousin Russell (T.I), who is the leader of a local black gang-the Crenshaw Kings to recruit King into the gang so that they can protect him in prison. In order to see whether King can act as a real racist, Lewis drives King to a local bar where the Allegiance of Whites gang is located. Unfortunately, King fails to act as a real racist and he is almost killed. This use of gangs for protection and the separation of gangs into black and whites is another portrayal of the power struggles of race, class and gender.
One thing that is clear in the movie is the fact that although the cast belongs to different cultural backgrounds they all seems to fit in well with people from other cultures as is portrayed in the movie by the director although racial and class boundaries are clearly visible.
Conclusion
Regardless of the power struggles that exist between the actors from different classes, races, and gender, it is clear that only the wisest of them win. Thus, we see that at the end Darnell and King unmask Martin, Kings Boss as the real mastermind of the fraud and embezzlement. Thus, in summary we can say that regardless of the fact that there exist power struggles between people from different cultural, racial, or class settings, it is a single person’s hard work and determination that can really determine who ends up victorious. In this case Lewis and King become friends and King actually offers Lewis money to expand his business although at the beginning none liked the other

Published in Uncategorised
Thursday, 30 April 2015 04:05

A View to a Kill 2


“A view to kill” is the seventh and last film in the James bond film series to star roger Moore as the fictional MI6 agent and the fourteenth film in the series over all. In this movie James bond is pitted against the French industrialist Max Zorin who wants to control the computer microchips market by causing an explosion in Silicon Valley in California. The film is directed by Albert broccoli and Michael Wilson. The film stars Roger Moore, Tanya Roberts, Grace Jones, Christopher Walken, and Patrick Macnee.
This film starts when Bond comes back from the USSR with a computer chip that he discovered or recovers from a mission to retrieve the body of agent 003. However, this chip is not a normal computer chip because this chip can withstand a nuclear electromagnetic pulse that is capable of destroying a computernormal chip. Bond and his superiors visit Ascot Racecourse to observe the company's owner, Max Zorin. While at the track, Zorin's horse miraculously wins the race and Godfrey Tibbett, a horse trainer, believes Zorin's horse was given drugs. However, when screened prior to the race, it did not show any signs of doping. Surprisingly, Zorin may only seem to be an ordinary and innocent businessman but in real sense Zorin is secretly planning to set off a powerful earthquake in San Andreas, California which he is sure willl wipe out all of Silicon Valley.
Apart from Zorin, Bond is also faced with a daunting task of dealing with May Day an equally menacing companion of Zorin. Bond will have to accomplish this whilst dragging Stacy Sutton along for the ride. Another challenger that Bond has to deal with is Scarpine, who is also a dangerous henchman of Zorin. In this film, Bond has to use all available resources and skills that he has in order to be able to deal with Zorin anf stop him from avccomplishing his mission. The film climaxes with a fight on top of the golden gate bridge in California where bond emerges victorious.
Analysis
The film is a perfect portrayal of power struggles in form of gender, class and race. This action-comedy film illustrates this through the use of Zorin-A wealthy French industrialist, Bond-a well trained spy, and May Day, a black woman but exceedingly dangerous when it comes to martial arts. From the early beginning, it is clear that although the film does entertain the audience, it brings out the power struggles that exist between people of different gender, race and social class. Each one of the actors wants to portray their strength in their own personal ways.
The different film chapters show how creative people have used film to give us experiences that we value. We will examine the principles and techniques that give this film its power to tell stories, express emotions, and trigger ideas while at the same time keeping us entertained. The characters and actions of the people in the film also play an important role in helping us to understand the key power struggle concepts in the film. For instance, we see that James Bond is an elderly clever and mysterious agent who is able to do things that other agents or his enemies are not able to match up. For instance, he manages to escape an ambush from Russian agents when he goes to retrieve the microchip at the beginning of the film. Secondly, we can see that although May Day is the girlfriend and key henchman of Zorin, James Bond convinces her to go with him to bed. This is a tricky situation because in such businesses or illegal operations that Zorin is involved in it looks quite tricky for someone to take such a risk knowing that they could easily be killed.
On the other hand, we see that the main antagonist, Zorin is also a very cunning businessperson. For instance, when he is explaining how he will make millions by flattening Silicon Valley and having the only supply of computer microchips, Zorin says that the “Main Strike” will be the ultimate choice. However, when one of the “to be partners,” decides to back off he is thrown out of the airship by May Day. This action makes the viewer wonder whether the “main Strike” indeed meant something else. This is because from the actions of Zorin it might appear that, the main strike may not be on Silicon Valley but on investors who may be willing to back down on the deal.
In addition, we see that Zorin is very clever because he uses his wit to know the real identity of James bond including the plan he had of killing him. First, he lures James Bond into his office and searches a database for possible matches of James Bond. After positively identifying him, he makes a plan on how he will kill him by pretending that they will have gone horse riding. Such skilful plans of action can only be present or acquired by people with stakes and this power struggle seems to be rather mental than physical.
The day after Bond sleeps with May Day Zorin invites him to his office and asks him whether he slept well. Noticing that Zorin knows about it Bond replies by saying that he was rather restless but he was finally able to wake up. This is another indication of the power struggle strategies that people use to answer questions to confirm the accusation while at the same time not being explicit about it.
In another incidence when Zorin Shoots the mayor he tells him that James Bond and Sutton had come to kill him and they accidentally perished in the fire. At this instance, the mayor tells Zorin that if that were the case then he would be …before he finishes the statement Zorin shoots him and finishes the statement that he would be “dead”. We can also see that Zorin is not willing to lose at any instance and he goes at any length to ensure that he achieves what he wants. This is also evidenced in his horseracing involvements. In this case, Zorin ensures that his horses are boosted with adrenaline to ensure that they outperform those of his competitors. This ensures that Zorin will continue to reap profits from horse racing because he is already aware of the winning horses by the time he places his bets.
One thing that is clear in the movie is the fact that although the cast belongs to different cultural backgrounds they all seems to fit in well with people from other cultures as is portrayed in the movie by the director although racial and class boundaries are clearly visible.
Conclusion
Regardless of the power struggles that exist between the actors from different classes, races, and gender, it is clear that only the wisest of them win. Thus, we see that at the end although Zorin has much money and ability to hire professional killers, he is not able to accomplish his mission because in the course of the film, people switch sides causing other people’s plans to falter. Thus, in summary we can say that regardless of the fact that there exist power struggles between people from different cultural, racial, or class settings, it is a single person’s hard work and determination that can really determine who ends up victorious.

Published in Uncategorised
Thursday, 30 April 2015 04:03

"A View to a Kill"

"A View to a Kill"
“A view to kill” is the seventh and last film in the James bond film series to star roger Moore as the fictional MI6 agent and the fourteenth film in the series over all. In this movie James bond is pitted against the French industrialist Max Zorin who wants to control the computer microchips market by causing an explosion in Silicon Valley in California. The film is directed by Albert broccoli and Michael Wilson. The film stars Roger Moore, Tanya Roberts, Grace Jones, Christopher Walken, and Patrick Macnee.
This film starts when Bond returns from his travels in the USSR with a computer chip that he discovered or recovers from the dead body of agent 003. However, this chip is not a normal chip because this chip is capable of withstanding a nuclear electromagnetic pulse that would otherwise destroy a normal chip. Bond and his superiors visit Ascot Racecourse to observe the company's owner, Max Zorin. While at the track, Zorin's horse miraculously wins the race and Godfrey Tibbett, a horse trainer, believes Zorin's horse was given drugs. However, when screened prior to the race, it did not show any signs of doping. Surprisingly, Zorin may only seem like an innocent guilty man, but is really planning to set off an earthquake in San Andreas, which will wipe out all of Silicon Valley.
As well as Zorin, Bond must also tackle May Day an equally menacing companion of Zorin, whilst dragging Stacy Sutton along for the ride as well as Scarpine, another one of Zorin's henchmen. Assisted by San Francisco City employee Stacy, Bond goes after the would-be computer magnate in a series of frightening confrontations - including fire in the SF City Hall, a wild chase through the city with Stacy at the wheel of a fire department ladder truck, and finally in a hand-to-hand fight atop San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge. James Bond takes on one of his most maniacal villains to date, Max Zorin, a leading French Industrialist. Zorin plans to detonate a series of explosions in the Silicon Valley causing an earthquake so he can get his hands on the world's leading microchip market. It is up to 007 to stop him. The film climaxes with a fight on top of the golden gate bridge in California where bond emerges victorious.
Analysis
The film is a perfect portrayal of power struggles in form of gender, class and race. This action-comedy film illustrates this through the use of Zorin-A wealthy French industrialist, Bond-a well trained spy, and May Day, a black woman but exceedingly dangerous when it comes to martial arts. From the early beginning, it is clear that although the film does entertain the audience, it brings out the power struggles that exist between people of different gender, race and social class. Each one of the actors wants to portray their strength in their own personal ways.
The different film chapters show how creative people have used film to give us experiences that we value. We will examine the principles and techniques that give this film its power to tell stories, express emotions, and trigger ideas while at the same time keeping us entertained. The characters and actions of the people in the film also play an important role in helping us to understand the key power struggle concepts in the film. For instance, we see that James Bond is an elderly clever and mysterious agent who is able to do things that other agents or his enemies are not able to match up. For instance, he manages to escape an ambush from Russian agents when he goes to retrieve the microchip at the beginning of the film. Secondly, we can see that although May Day is the girlfriend and key henchman of Zorin, James Bond convinces her to go with him to bed. This is a tricky situation because in such businesses or illegal operations that Zorin is involved in it looks quite tricky for someone to take such a risk knowing that they could easily be killed.
On the other hand, we see that the main antagonist, Zorin is also a very cunning businessperson. For instance, when he is explaining how he will make millions by flattening Silicon Valley and having the only supply of computer microchips, Zorin says that the “Main Strike” will be the ultimate choice. However, when one of the “to be partners,” decides to back off he is thrown out of the airship by May Day. This action makes the viewer wonder whether the “main Strike” indeed meant something else. This is because from the actions of Zorin it might appear that, the main strike may not be on Silicon Valley but on investors who may be willing to back down on the deal.
In addition, we see that Zorin is very clever because he uses his wit to know the real identity of James bond including the plan he had of killing him. First, he lures James Bond into his office and searches a database for possible matches of James Bond. After positively identifying him, he makes a plan on how he will kill him by pretending that they will have gone horse riding. Such skilful plans of action can only be present or acquired by people with stakes and this power struggle seems to be rather mental than physical.
The day after Bond sleeps with May Day Zorin invites him to his office and asks him whether he slept well. Noticing that Zorin knows about it Bond replies by saying that he was rather restless but he was finally able to wake up. This is another indication of the power struggle strategies that people use to answer questions to confirm the accusation while at the same time not being explicit about it.
In another incidence when Zorin Shoots the mayor he tells him that James Bond and Sutton had come to kill him and they accidentally perished in the fire. At this instance, the mayor tells Zorin that if that were the case then he would be …before he finishes the statement Zorin shoots him and finishes the statement that he would be “dead”. We can also see that Zorin is not willing to lose at any instance and he goes at any length to ensure that he achieves what he wants. This is also evidenced in his horseracing involvements. In this case, Zorin ensures that his horses are boosted with adrenaline to ensure that they outperform those of his competitors. This ensures that Zorin will continue to reap profits from horse racing because he is already aware of the winning horses by the time he places his bets.
One thing that is clear in the movie is the fact that although the cast belongs to different cultural backgrounds they all seems to fit in well with people from other cultures as is portrayed in the movie by the director although racial and class boundaries are clearly visible.
Conclusion
Regardless of the power struggles that exist between the actors from different classes, races, and gender, it is clear that only the wisest of them win. Thus, we see that at the end although Zorin has much money and ability to hire professional killers, he is not able to accomplish his mission because in the course of the film, people switch sides causing other people’s plans to falter. Thus, in summary we can say that regardless of the fact that there exist power struggles between people from different cultural, racial, or class settings, it is a single person’s hard work and determination that can really determine who ends up victorious.

Published in Uncategorised